Tag Archives: mental

Mental Health #type #of #mental #illness

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What Do You Want to Know About Mental Health?

In the past decade, mental health professionals have begun applying research to the study of happiness. The result is “positive psychology,” a new field of inquiry that focuses on the emotions and personality traits that add up to a satisfying life. Positive psychology also investigates how its principles apply to community and social institutions, such as families, schools, and workplaces.

Research has confirmed what most lottery winners have found out the hard way; happiness is not necessarily waiting on the slopes of Whistler or behind the wheel of a Maserati. It consists of having physical health, intellectual challenges, close family ties, engaging social relationships, and perhaps some kind of spiritual connection.

Of course, everyone is confronted with profound challenges from time to time—job loss, legal problems, divorce, injury or illness, and bereavement. These situations can be devastating. Such setbacks are often accompanied by financial reversals, such as bankruptcy or home foreclosure. But these experiences of loss, disappointment, and misfortune help us appreciate what—and who—we have.

Most of the time, we bounce back from adversity. The degree to which we’re able to do so is called resilience. But sometimes a person lacks the support system or inner resources to rally after a hard blow. Depression, an anxiety disorder, or some other mental illness may follow.

Types of Mental Health Disorders

Like physical illness, mental illness takes many forms. To make sense of these forms, experts have devised 16 categories, ranging from factitious (faking) disorders to psychoses. Let’s look at the characteristics of several of the most common types of mental health disorder

Depressive Disorders

There are three types of depression:

Dysthymia is a chronic (long term) but mild depression that lasts more than two years and keeps people from functioning at their highest level. People with dysthymia feel a great deal of self-doubt and may pass up educational or career opportunities as a result. They’re able to go through the motions but tend to find little joy in life.

Major depression is a chronic, severe sense of despair that lasts six months or more. Major depression usually impairs the ability to work or study, interferes with relationships, and/or affects eating or sleeping patterns. Dysthymia can evolve into major depression.

Also called manic-depressive disorder, bipolar (meaning “two poles”) illness is a form of depression in which a person cycles through unpredictable highs and lows, punctuated by periods of relative stability. The highs are sometimes referred to as “mania,” but that term is a bit misleading because it suggests that the manic person is frenzied or deranged. In fact, the person might simply appear excited, talkative, energetic, and upbeat. During this phase, the person is apt to pursue overly ambitious projects, show poor judgment, and display reckless behavior, such as engaging in unsafe sex, spending or gambling sprees, or drinking binges. Conversely when the person is moving through a depressive cycle, he or she will show traits more common to depression such as sleep problems, loss of interest in hobbies, guilt, indifference, and loss of concentration.

Anxiety Disorders

When normal apprehension escalates into alarm and dread, it is classified as a mental health problem. Anxiety disorders are classified as follows:

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

People with GAD might be called “high strung.” They expect poor outcomes, tend to be jumpy and fearful, and worry a great deal about minor things that are beyond their control. Being emotionally overwrought may contribute to physical symptoms, such as stomach ailments, headaches, insomnia, and fatigue.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

OCD is characterized by persistent, intrusive thoughts that cause uneasiness, fear, or distress—the obsessive component of the disorder—and by repetitive irrational rituals the person feels compelled to perform in order to alleviate anxiety—the compulsive component of the disorder. For example, a person who is afraid of contamination might iron clothes obsessively—even socks, sheets, and underwear—in an effort to kill germs with the heat of the iron.

The chief symptom of panic disorder is a sudden, crushing wave of anxiety accompanied by physical symptoms such as sweating, nausea, shortness of breath, dizziness, and heart palpitations. These waves of panic generally peak within 10 minutes and then go away. About six million adults in the United States have panic disorder. It can begin at any age, but the typical onset is in the mid-20s. It may be accompanied by other conditions, such as bipolar disorder.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

As its name suggests, PTSD occurs among people who have survived a severe trauma, such as combat, rape, a natural disaster, or diagnosis of a life-threatening illness. This disorder can induce either a state of hyperarousal, in which the person remains constantly vigilant for threats, or a state of dissociation, in which feelings and thoughts are separated or compartmentalized. The person may have flashbacks; become detached or irritable; or avoid certain people, places, or situations that arouse disturbing memories.

Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder)

People with social phobia are enveloped by an overwhelming sense of dread in certain social situations, such as job interviews, parties, or dates. Even being called upon to answer a question during a business meeting or needing to ask for directions can cause a person with social phobia to blush, sweat, tremble, or feel faint. This disorder often accompanies bipolar disorder and other depressive illnesses. It can also occur with anxiety disorders such as OCD and panic disorder. For reasons that are unclear, about 40 percent of people with social phobia have a coexisting substance abuse problem.


Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder that entails a loss of touch with reality. A person with schizophrenia cannot cope with daily life or meet the reasonable expectations and demands of others, such as an employer or partner. Symptoms of the disorder include the following:

  • Disordered, delusional thoughts, which may include hallucinations and paranoia
  • Incoherent, disjointed speech and behavior
  • Blunted emotions and withdrawal from others
  • Impaired judgment and intellectual abilities
  • Poor impulse control
  • An unkempt personal appearance

Schizophrenia affects one percent of adults and generally appears earlier in men than in women. Men usually begin to show symptoms between ages 18 and 25. Women usually begin to show symptoms between ages 25 and 35. Schizophrenia tends to ‘burn out’ by the mid-60s. Patients usually do not regain normal mental functioning, but their hallucinations begin to diminish.

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BYTSYZ E-Learning, online courses training and assessment #online #training,care #training,online #assessment,safeguarding #training, #safeguarding #children, #safeguarding

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Psychopathology and behavioral assessment #vernon #neppe, #medicine, #psychopharmacology, #neuropsychiatry, #forensic #psychiatry, #neuropsychiatric, #institute, #education, #lectures,

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Neuropsychiatry: the Interface Area of Psychiatry and Neurology

What is Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Neurology?

Neuropsychiatry involves the interface area of psychiatry and neurology. This is a specialist medical discipline involving the behavioral or psychological difficulties associated with known or suspected neurological conditions such as epilepsy, head injury, attention deficit disorder, dementia, tardive dyskinesia, atypical spells, irritability and any organic mental disorder. Technically, Neuropsychiatry concentrates on the abnormalities in those areas of higher brain function such as the cerebral cortex and limbic system. Sometimes difficult to treat psychological or psychiatric conditions. including problems relating to medication. are related to these areas.

The subspecialty of neuropsychiatry is the neurological aspects of psychiatry and the psychiatric aspects of neurology. All neuropsychiatric patients invariably have a psychiatric aspect as well as a higher brain neurological facet.

Neuropsychiatry, now used synonymously with Behavioral Neurology, is the medical subspecialty dealing with the evaluation and management of higher brain functions (cerebral cortex and limbic system).

Although Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Neurology are regarded as the same specialty, the primary initial specialty directions may be different. (Neuropsychiatrists may come to this specialty through psychiatry, Behavioral Neurologists through Neurology). Because of the highly specialized nature of this specialty, there was technically no board certification in this area until late 2006. This changed when the United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties (UCNS) introduced Subspecialty Certification of Behavioral Neurology and Neuropsychiatry. (BPNP). These two specialties by so doing merged into one. psychiatrists specialize in these behavioral facets as do behavioral neurologists whose discipline is similar. The term Neuropsychiatrist and Behavioral Neurologist should be restricted to those with psychiatric training and special background training in the psychopathology of the cerebral cortex.

A training in Neurology and in Psychiatry alone does not make one a neuropsychiatrist / behavioral neurologist.

One method of training today would be a full four year residency in one or both of Psychiatry or Neurology and then an added Fellowship program e.g. of two years.

Historical Landmarks in Neuropsychiatry in the USA

Dr Vernon M. Neppe MD, PhD, founded the first Division of Neuropsychiatry in a Department of Psychiatry in the USA in 1986 (at the University of Washington (UW), Seattle, WA). He directed this division till 1992, offering also specialized medical student, residency and fellowship rotations in Neuropsychiatry. Dr Neppe was recruited from overseas (South Africa) by the then Chairman of Psychiatry, Gary J. Tucker MD, after a national search had failed. Dr Neppe had previously effectively done what may have been the first unofficial “Fellowship” in Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Neurology (1982-1983) at Cornell University Medical Center (White Plains, and Manhattan, NY).

Dr. Neppe then founded the Pacific Neuropsychiatric Institute in 1992 (pni.org). This became the first private institute dealing with the area of Neuropsychiatry specifically. The PNI was developed as a model neuropsychiatric and behavioral neurological institute, clinically involving extremely detailed sequential consultations and testing plus detailed analyses of psychopharmacogical elements. The PNI focuses, as well, on research (with the development of numerous questionnaires and tests) and education. Amongst the most important for this subdiscipline are the BROCAS SCAN. the SOBIN and the INSET. which are tests that Dr Neppe has developed and modified over the past two decades and are still in the process of research. The BROCAS SCAN is an examination of higher brain function, the SOBIN and the INSET are structured closed ended and with amplification open ended historical measures of current and past symptoms and signs of neuropsychiatric relevance.

The American Neuropsychiatric Association was established in 1988. It is an organization of professionals in neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences (not necessarily MDs) dedicated to understanding the links between neuroscience and behavior, and to developing effective diagnosis and treatment for patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. The ANPA members work together in a collegial and interdisciplinary fashion to: advance knowledge of brain-behavior relations; provide a forum for learning; and promote excellent, scientific and compassionate patient care. The interdisciplinary nature of the membership encourages collaborations in research presentations, symposia, workshops and/or continuing education courses. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences is the official publication of the organization, and is a benefit of membership. ANPA was the brainchild of two neuropsychiatrists, Barry Fogel, M.D. and Randolph B. Schiffer, M.D.

There was an indirect label of Neuropsychiatrist previously through the AMA: In late 2003, the AMA recognized Neuropsychiatry as an official subspecialty of Psychiatry. Apparently the first MD so listed was Dr Vernon Neppe.

Over the past few years we are seeing an increasing number of Fellowships in Neuropsychiatry/ Behavioral Neurology which the UCNS are certifying. An early Fellowship program was offered at the University of Washington in the Division of Neuropsychiatry.

In 2006, the People to People Ambassador program had the first delegation in Neuropsychiatry (and Psychopharmacology).
This was a very successful delegation to China. This delegation was led by Dr Vernon Neppe.

Behavioral Neurology and Neuropsychiatry (BN NP) taken together is now a recognized official subspecialty certified by the United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties. (UCNS ). The first examination was administered in Sept 2006.
This certification allows an official subspecialty board certification label. The criteria for admission to this examination are rather stringent and the examination requires a high level of specialized knowledge. The first graduating group of about fifty (including Dr Neppe) can use the official abbreviation for this subcertification, namely BN NP. A major advance is this recognition of BN NP as a subspecialty of Neurology.

The criteria for admission to this examination are rather stringent and the examination requires a high level of specialized knowledge.

The difference between Neuropsychiatrists and Neuropsychologists

Neuropsychiatrists also called Behavioral Neurologists

are MDs: They are physicians, who are medically trained at medical schools and have thereafter specialized in an extremely complex area.

are an unusual, highly educated medical subspecialty.

their background is in psychiatry and neurology

they specialize in pathology of the higher brain at the clinical neurological and psychiatric levels

they are clinicians who focus on managing difficulties, assessing prognosis and prescribing medications

usually perform specialized neuropsychiatric evaluations

use detailed structured history taking questionnaires which are amplified clinically and also use tests that are standardized for a particular population and will commonly find areas of abnormality which may or may not be clinically relevant and also

neuropsychiatric evaluations involve assessments of higher cerebral cortical functions, integration of brain symptomatology such as temporal lobe phenomena, correlations with neurological and psychiatric diagnoses and appropriate prescriptions, and several clinically relevant neuropsychiatric tests.

also rely on neuropsychological tests and such measures as ambulatory electroencephalography.

neuropsychiatrists are often the “captains” of the treating team for neurological conditions with associated psychiatric disorders or psychiatric conditions with neurological disorders.

typical patients with neuropsychiatric conditions include patients who suffer from

seizures with behavioral, emotional or thinking difficulties traumatic head injuries with personality or other changes including post-traumatic stress disorders
headaches or migraines with mood changes, depression or anxiety
movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia with associated medication or psychiatric elements
brain injuries or disturbances
temporal lobe disease

are not physicians.

generally have PhDs in psychology.

have subspecialized in the psychological assessment and management of higher brain function.

cannot prescribe

usually perform specialized neuropsychological evaluations such as personality, intelligence and specific brain disorder evaluations.

these tests are standardized and will commonly find areas of abnormality which may or may not be clinically relevant.

PAA – Psychologists Association of Alberta #paa, #psychologists #association #of #alberta, #alberta #psychologist, #psychology, #psychological

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The Mission of the Psychologists Association of Alberta is to advance the science-based profession of psychology and to promote the well-being and potential of all

Call For Vendors Trauma Psychologists

The PAA Reconnection Integration Program is calling for vendors. PAA s Wood Buffalo Region Wildfires Psychological Trauma Treatment Program will publicly launch once we have an approved vendors list. This program will fund direct trauma treatment or assessment specific to the 2016 Wood Buffalo Region Wildfires. Psychologists residing in Wood Buffalo, or those with competency in trauma treatment who meet our eligibility criteria (see Members Only area) are encouraged to apply. More. This program is funded by the Canadian Red Cross. Together, we support a psychologically healthy Alberta

Formal public engagement on the legalization of cannabis in Alberta until 31 July 2017. Online survey at www.alberta.ca/cannabis and more information

Please be aware of Phishing Scams

Report How to Protect Yourself

If you want to report abusive behavior spam or email scams, please contact to scammer s email client such as Gmail, Yahoo, Icloud and etc.

Medical Assistance in Dying please note that the Office of the Public Guardian Trustee has issued a directive for Designated Capacity Assessors note that this designation does not imply designation to conduct capacity assessments specific to MAID.

PAA is currently exploring psychological health and the involvement of psychologists in this regard.

Psychological Service Funds

The PAA Psychological Service Funds help people who can’t afford the services of a psychologist
to access the help they need.

The funds have been expended and no further funds will be available until the next disbursement from the Foundation in October of 2017

PAA Membership

Not a member? Join one of the strongest national professional associations in psychology

Member Benefits and Services

Healthy Workplaces

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Understanding chronic stress #mental #health,,chronic #stress, #health, #stress #management, #what #is,,stress,

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Understanding chronic stress

Stress is often described as a feeling of being overwhelmed, worried or run-down. Stress can affect people of all ages, genders and circumstances and can lead to both physical and psychological health issues. By definition, stress is any uncomfortable “emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological and behavioral changes.” 1 Some stress can be beneficial at times, producing a boost that provides the drive and energy to help people get through situations like exams or work deadlines. However, an extreme amount of stress can have health consequences and adversely affect the immune, cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and central nervous systems. 2

How stress harms your health

In addition, an extreme amount of stress can take a severe emotional toll. While people can overcome minor episodes of stress by tapping into their body’s natural defenses to adapt to changing situations, excessive chronic stress, which is constant and persists over an extended period of time, can be psychologically and physically debilitating.

Unlike everyday stressors, which can be managed with healthy stress management behaviors, untreated chronic stress can result in serious health conditions including anxiety, insomnia, muscle pain, high blood pressure and a weakened immune system. 3 Research shows that stress can contribute to the development of major illnesses, such as heart disease, depression and obesity. 4 Some studies have even suggested t hat unhealthy chronic stess management, such as overating “comfort” foods, has contributed to the growing obesity epidemic. 5 Yet, despite its connection to illness, APA’s Stress in America survey revealed that 33 percent of Americans never discuss ways to manage stress with their healthcare provider.

Chronic stress can occur in response to everday stressors that are ignored or poorly managed, as well as to exposure to traumatic events. The consequences of chronic stress are serious, particularly as it contributes to anxiety and depression. People who suffer from depression and anxiety are at twice the risk for heart disease than people without these conditions. 6 Additionally, research has shown that there is an association between both acute and chronic stress and a person’s abuse of addictive substances. 7

Managing your stress

Studies have also illustrated the strong link between insomnia and chronic stress. 8 According to APA’s Stress in America survey, more than 40 percent of all adults say they lie awake at night because of stress. Experts recommend going to bed at a regular time each night, striving for at least seven to eight hours of sleep and eliminating distractions such as television and computers from the bedroom.

Many Americans who experience prolonged stress are not making the lifestyle changes necessary to reduce stress and ultimately prevent health problems. Improving lifestyle and behavioral choices are essential steps toward increasing overall health and avoiding chronic stress. The key to managing stress is recognizing and changing the behaviors that cause it, but changing your behavior can be challenging.

Taking one small step to reduce your stress and improve your emotional health, such as going on a daily walk, can have a beneficial effect. Being active is a small but powerful change you can make to manage stress. Physical activity increases your body’s production of feel-good endorphins, a type of neurotransmitter in the brain, and helps in treating mild forms of depression and anxiety. 9 In addition, eating a healthy diet and enhancing both the amount and quality of your sleep may be beneficial.

But remember, if a high stress level continues for a long period of time, or if potential problems from stress continue to interfere with activities of daily living, it is important to reach out to a licensed mental health professional, such as a psychologist. Research has shown that chronic stress can be treated with appropriate interventions such as lifestyle and behavior change, therapy, and in some situations, medication. 10 A psychologist can help you ovecome the barriers that are stopping you from living a healthy life, manage stress effectively and help identify behaviors and situations that are contributing to your consistently high stress level.

Special thanks to Mary K. Alvord, PhD, Karina W. Davidson, PhD, Jennifer F. Kelly, PhD, ABPP, Kevin M. McGuiness, PhD, MS, ABPP-CH, and Steven Tovian, PhD, ABPP, who assisted with this article.


1) Baum, A. (1990). “Stress, Intrusive Imagery, and Chronic Distress,” Health Psychology. Vol. 6, pp. 653-675.

2) Anderson, N.B. (1998). “Levels of Analysis in Health Science: A Framework for Integrating Sociobehavioral and Biomedical Research,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 840, pp. 563-576.

3) Baum, A. Polsusnzy, D. (1999). “Health Psychology: Mapping Biobehavioral Contributions to Health and Illness.” Annual Review of Psychology. Vol. 50, pp. 137-163.

5) Dallman, M. et al. (2003). “Chronic stress and obesity: A new view of ‘comfort food.'” PNAS, Vol. 100, pp. 11696-11701.

6) Anderson, N.B. Anderson, P.E. (2003). Emotional Longevity: what really determines how long you live. New York: Viking.

7) Sinha, R. (2008). “Chronic Stress, Drug Use, and Vulnerability to Addiction.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 1141, pp. 105-130.

8) Vgontzas, A.N. et al. (1997). “Chronic insomnia and activity of the stress system: a preliminary study.” Journal of Psychosomatic Research. Vol. 45, pp. 21-31.

9) Fox, K.R. (1999). “The influence of physical activity on mental well-being.” Public Health Nutrition. Vol. 2, pp. 411-418.

ssfueedsaqxfdewzubtyfxzvyffccudsq 10) McEwen, B.S. (2004). “Protection and Damage from Acute and Chronic Stress: Allostasis and Allostatic Overload and Relevance to the Pathophysiology of Psychiatric Disorders.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 1032, pp. 1-7.

The full text of articles from APA Help Center may be reproduced and distributed for noncommercial purposes with credit given to the American Psychological Association. Any electronic reproductions must link to the original article on the APA Help Center. Any exceptions to this, including excerpting, paraphrasing or reproduction in a commercial work, must be presented in writing to the APA. Images from the APA Help Center may not be reproduced.

Social Worker #children, #social #worker, #social #services, #general #social #care #council, #learning #difficulties, #behavioural #difficulties,

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Social Worker

By: Jack Claridge (20 May 17)

A social worker is an individual who aims to help those people within society who have – for whatever reasons – an inability or a difficulty in dealing with issues or crises that see them excluded from society.Social workers can carry out their duties in a variety of different locations and settings ranging from a client’s home their school, hospital or other public sector organisation.

Who Social Workers Commonly Deal With

For the most part a social worker’s clients will be younger individuals and their families and here are some of the most common groups who need the assistance and intervention of a social worker:

  • Young offenders
  • Individuals with learning difficulties
  • Young people with behavioural difficulties
  • Drug and alcohol addicts
  • Pupils with high levels of truancy
  • Elderly individuals
  • Individuals with mental health issues

The role of social worker is to offer practical and emotional support to anyone in any of the aforementioned categories and to do so objectively and without prejudice. This is very important as many look to social workers as a means of alleviating their concerns without burdening loved ones or family members and also without feeling embarrassed or concerned about the information they impart.

What a Social Worker Does

A social worker may often find that their role requires them to do several of the following on a daily basis in order to provide assistance to their clients as well as the other health and social care groups who may also be trying to help.

  • Interviewing clients and families to understand the nature of their problems
  • Offer support and counselling to clients and their families
  • Write assessments, which may be used to provide other health and social care bodies with a more detailed insight into an individual’s problems and needs
  • Provide evidence in a court environment (depending on the nature of the client’s problems and also their needs)
  • Liasing with other agencies especially in instances of child welfare or psychiatric treatment
  • Liasing with medical staff regarding the duty and nature of medical help and intervention

Again not an exhaustive list but one which goes some way to understanding just what a social worker has and does do on an almost daily basis.

Also – as we have already touched upon – a social worker is someone who can simply provide a sympathetic and impartial ear for someone who is having difficulty dealing with problems within the family unit.

Becoming a Social Worker

University study is required in order to qualify as a social worker. This can either be in the form of a degree course in social work or as a post graduate course once an initial degree has been obtained.

A qualified social worker is required by law to register with the General Social Care Council (GSCC). This council offers advice and support for its members and also the means to study and pursue further career enhancing qualifications once an individual has qualified and registered as a social worker.

One way in which this might be done is to participate in the Post-Qualifying Award in Social Work (PQSW) or the Advanced Award in Social Work (AASW). Both of these schemes are brought into play once a social worker has qualified and involve the social worker taking on additional studies as well as work placements for both government bodies and private employees.

These schemes are designed to enhance a social worker’s learning and also their work experience so that they may employ new methods of helping their clients whatever their backgrounds.

Within the social care arena an individual who has qualified as a social worker can opt to concentrate their efforts on dealing with children or the elderly or those with psychological and behavioural disorders and there are career enhancing qualifications available to help one achieve their place in their chosen field.

For more information on how to become a social worker you can contact the General Social Care Council or your local social services.

Further Reading

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DSM-5 Changes: Addiction, Substance-Related Disorders – Alcoholism #addictive #disorders,alcohol #abuse,alcohol #dependence,alcoholism,american #psychiatric #association,attention #deficit #hyperactivity,attention

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DSM-5 Changes: Addiction, Substance-Related Disorders Alcoholism

The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) has a number of changes to addictions, substance-related disorders and alcoholism. This article outlines some of the major changes to these conditions.

According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA), the publisher of the DSM-5, the major change with substance abuse and alcohol abuse and dependence disorders has been the removal of the distinction between abuse and dependence. The chapter also moves gambling disorder into it as a behavioral addiction. According to the APA, this change reflects the increasing and consistent evidence that some behaviors, such as gambling, activate the brain reward system with effects similar to those of drugs of abuse and that gambling disorder symptoms resemble substance use disorders to a certain extent.

Criteria and Terminology

I always thought it was completely arbitrary that the DSM-IV made a distinction between someone struggling with substance abuse and dependence. To me and to many other clinicians they instead appeared to be the same disorder but on a continuum of abuse. Finally, the DSM-5 comes around to the convention wisdom of therapists in the field.

Criteria are provided for substance use disorder, accompanied by criteria for intoxication, withdrawal, substance/medication-induced disorders, and unspecified substance-induced disorders, where relevant, according to the APA.

There are two major changes to the new DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorder:

  • Recurrent legal problems criterion for substance abuse has been deleted from DSM-5
  • A new criterion has been added: craving or a strong desire or urge to use a substance

The threshold for substance use disorder diagnosis in DSM-5 is set at two or more criteria. This is a change from DSM-IV, where abuse required a threshold of one or more criteria be met, and three or more for DSM-IV substance dependence.

Cannabis withdrawal is new for DSM-5, according to the APA, as is caffeine withdrawal (which was in DSM-IV Appendix B, “Criteria Sets and Axes Provided for Further Study”).

Of note, the criteria for DSM-5 tobacco use disorder are the same as those for other substance use disorders. By contrast, DSM-IV did not have a category for tobacco abuse, so the criteria in DSM-5 that are from DSM-IV abuse are new for tobacco in DSM-5.

Severity of the DSM-5 substance use disorders is based on the number of criteria endorsed:

  • 2–3 criteria indicate a mild disorder
  • 4–5 criteria, a moderate disorder
  • 6 or more, a severe disorder

The DSM-5 removes the physiological subtype (not sure when this was ever used in the DSM-IV), as well as the diagnosis for polysubstance dependence.

Last, the APA notes that, early remission from a DSM-5 substance use disorder is defined as at least 3 but less than 12 months without substance use disorder criteria (except craving), and sustained re-mission is defined as at least 12 months without criteria (except craving). Additional new DSM-5 specifiers include “in a controlled environment” and “on maintenance therapy” as the situation warrants.


Mental Health Crisis Intervention training #mental, #illness, #health, #crisis, #response, #institute, #de-escalation, #intervention, #training, #law

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CIT training for Law Enforcement and Corrections at Hennepin County Public Safety Facility

The Mental Health Crisis Response Institute, MHCRI, brings all the Barbara Schneider Foundation s training programs together to strengthen the overarching themes of our mission and goals. The Mental Health Crisis Response Institute grows the Foundation s training mission by partnering with expert trainers and local agencies to provide effective de-escalation skills and strategies to professionals that encounter a person in a mental health crisis. These skills will increase safety for the responder and participants in the encounter, reduce the need for seclusion and restraints, reduce the trauma of the crisis, and keep the person in crisis on the road to recovery and wellness.

Your efforts have improved the lives of people with mental illness and helped others better understand the challenges of mental illness so all people can be treated equally, with dignity and respect.

Richard W. Stanek, Hennepin County Sheriff

We appreciate BSF s training approach and support their efforts to encourage collaboration between criminal justice and mental health in mental health crisis response.

Virginia K. Lane, Executive Director
School of Law Enforcement Criminal Justice Metropolitan State University

* Crisis Intervention Team (C.I.T.) in Minnesota, South Dakota, North Dakota, Wisconsin and Iowa. Conference on October 26, 2017 at the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute at the University of Minnesota. More informationHere.

* Open Enrollment – Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training for Law Enforcement, Oct. 30-Nov. 3, 2017

* Open Enrollment- CIT Train the Trainer training, November 4, 2017

*Strategies for Trauma Awareness and Resilience (STAR) Trainings and Restorative Justice 101 Trainings

Individuals, communities, and societies often arrive at crossroads where decisions are made in the heat of a crisis. These decisions either lead to (1) conflict and violence or (2) healing and peace. Address trauma, break cycles of violence, transform self and society. Restorative justice has been an alternative approach within the criminal justice system that focuses on the personally identified needs of the victims, the offenders, and impacted community members, instead of focusing solely on satisfying abstract legal principles and/or punishing the offender. Contact Donna Minter Phd, LP at (612) 377-4660 or go to www.mnpeace.org or here for more information and to register for trainings.

* Na tional Institute of Corrections Broadcast July 29, 2010

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What is Mental Health Rehabilitation? (with pictures) – mobile wiseGEEK #mental #health #rehabs

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wiseGEEK: What is Mental Health Rehabilitation?

Mental health rehabilitation is a form of rehabilitation that focuses on helping people to recover lost skills in coping with the demands of everyday life and restoring relationships that may have become strained or damaged as a result of problems related to mental illness or some type of substance abuse. The rehab may take place in a controlled environment, such as a clinic. However, it is also possible to undergo rehabilitation on an outpatient basis. The attending physician can work with the patient and his or her family to determine the most effective course of treatment for the individual.

In many cases, mental health rehabilitation is part of a larger rehab effort aimed at helping an individual escape from some form of addiction. Often, addiction seriously impacts the ability and the desire of the addict to engage in normal social interaction, pay attention to hygiene, and in general deal with simple tasks that most people perform each day. As a result of the abuse of various substances, the individual may actually lose the skills to function in society. By address the emotional and mental components of the addiction and retraining the patient to function as part of the surrounding community, he or she can recapture those lost abilities.

A form of rehabilitation can also be helpful for people recovering from depression and severe anxiety disorders. This type of treatment can often be managed successfully on an outpatient basis through a local rehabilitation center. In this form, the rehab attempts to reorient the individual to a state of perception that is devoid of the negative emotions that shaped the patient’s worldview during his or her illness. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is one form of mental health rehabilitation that is often successful with people who are overcoming severe anxiety disorders, in that the therapy helps defuse the fear that sometimes grips the patient when attempting to engage in normal social activities.

There are both individual and group forms of mental health rehabilitation. Individual rehab efforts normally involve working one on one with the patient to regulate the use of any medication necessary to maintain a balanced emotional state, as well as regular therapy sessions that support the patient in reentering society. The group rehab effort may include special classes that address such common issues as grooming, the preparation of meals, and simple social skills that help the patient to deal with such common tasks as grocery shopping, attending a party, or having a meal out with friends.

Like drug rehabilitation and other forms of rehab, mental health rehabilitation is a process that may take months or even years to complete. During that time, the patient is likely to enjoy periods when progress comes easy, and other times when forward movement is almost non-existent. As the rehabilitation continues, it is important for loved ones to be supportive and make it a point to acknowledge each step forward, no matter how small it may seem. With the right treatment and proper support, it is possible for the patient to reenter society and enjoy life once more.

Article Discussion

2) Sunny27 – I agree but there are some mental health centers that are designed to treat more severe cases that pertain to bipolar, schizophrenic, and suicidal patients.

These patients receive more intense treatments in order to stabilize their state of mind. I know that many mental clinic offer family therapy in order to treat the individual within the family dynamic.

Family members are encouraged to attend therapy and may even be involved along with the patient in choosing from various forms of treatment. There are also support groups that the patient can attend once they are released from the mental health facility so they can continue to be in touch with people that have similar issues.

This form of group therapy is very effective because the patient sees that they are not alone in their suffering and there are others with the same afflictions.

I agree that cognitive behavioral therapy is probably one of the best methods of mental health therapy.

It really helps a patient to alter their previous behavior with a new set of habits that are healthier and more productive.

For example, an alcoholic might have the urge to drink when he is stressed. The cognitive behavioral sessions would address this pattern of behavior and find an alternative activity that could replace the drinking that also has a soothing effect.

The therapist might suggest exercising as a way to ease the mind and body of the impending stress.

This conditioning develops slowly and little by little the negative behavior of the drinking will be replaced with a variety of other activities that offer the same calming effect without the adverse effects of drinking.